002 - Soorah al-Baqarah - (The Cow) - [Makkee]
[002.182] But he who fears from a testator some unjust act or wrongdoing, and thereupon he makes peace between the parties concerned, there shall be no sin on him. Certainly, All‚h is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
[002.183] O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-MuttaqŻn (the pious. See V.2:2).
[002.184] [Observing Saum (fasts)] for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a MiskÓn (needy person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast is better for you if only you know.
[002.185] The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'‚n, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the Criterion (between right and wrong). So, whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Saum (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. All‚h intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify All‚h [i.e. to say TakbÓr (All‚hu Akbar: All‚h is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.
[002.186] And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad [sal-All‚hu 'alayhi wa sallam]) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright.
(V.2:183) As-Saum means fasting, i.e., not to eat or drink or have sexual relations from the Adh‚n of the Fajr (early morning) prayer till the sunset.
(V.2:184) The provision of this Verse has been abrogated by the next Verse: 185, with few exceptions, i.e., very old person, or pregnancy.
(A) Narrated Talhah bin 'Ubaidull‚h: A bedouin with unkempt hair came to All‚h's Messenger [sal-All‚hu 'alayhi wa sallam] and said, "O All‚h's Messenger! Inform me what All‚h has made compulsory for me as regards the Sal‚t (prayers)." He replied: "You have to offer perfectly the five compulsory Sal‚t (prayers) in a day and night (24 hours), unless you want to pray Naw‚fil." The bedouin further asked, "Inform me what All‚h has made compulsory for me as regards Saum (fasting)." He replied, "You have to fast during the whole month of Ramad‚n, unless you want to fast more as Naw‚fil." The bedouin further asked, "Tell me how much Zak‚t (obligatory charity) All‚h has enjoined on me." The narrator added: Then, All‚h's Messenger [sal-All‚hu 'alayhi wa sallam] informed him all about the laws (i.e. fundamentals) of Isl‚m. The bedouin then said, "By Him Who has honoured you, I will neither perform any Naw‚fil nor will I decrease what All‚h has enjoined on me." All‚h's Messenger [sal-All‚hu 'alayhi wa sallam] said, "If he is saying the truth, he will succeed (or he will be granted Paradise)." [Sahih Al-Bukh‚ri, 3/1891 (O.P.115)]
(B) Narrated AbŻ Hurairah [radhi-yAll‚hu 'anhu]: All‚h's Messenger [sal-All‚hu 'alayhi wa sallam] said, "As-Siy‚m (the fasting) is Junnah (protection or shield or a screen or a shelter from the Hell-fire*). So, the person observing Saum (fasting) should avoid sexual relation with his wife and should not behave foolishly and impudently, and if somebody fights with him or abuses him, he should say to him twice, 'I am fasting.' " The Prophet [sal-All‚hu 'alayhi wa sallam] added, "By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, the smell coming out from the mouth of a fasting person is better with All‚h [Subh‚nahu wa Ta'‚la] than the smell of musk. (All‚h says about the fasting person), 'He has left his food, drink and desires for My sake. The Saum (fast) is for Me.** So I will reward (the fasting person) for it and the reward of good deeds is multiplied ten times.' " [Sahih Al-Bukh‚ri, 3/1894 (O.P.118)]
* See Fath Al-BarÓ, Vol. 5, Page 5.
** Although all practices of worshipping are for All‚h, here All‚h [Subh‚nahu wa Ta'‚la] singles out Saum (fasting), because fasting cannot be practised for the sake of showing off, as nobody except All‚h can know whether one is fasting or not. Therefore, fasting is a pure performance that cannot be blemished with hypocrisy. (Fath Al-BarÓ)
(C) Narrated AbŻ Hurairah [radhi-yAll‚hu 'anhu]: The Prophet [sal-All‚hu 'alayhi wa sallam] said, "Whoever does not give up lying speech -- false statements (i.e. telling lies) and acting on those (lies), and evil actions, then All‚h is not in need of his leaving his food and drink (i.e. All‚h will not accept his fasting*)". -- [Sahih Al-Bukh‚ri, 3/1903 (O.P.127)]
* See Fath Al-BarÓ.
(V.2:186) Narrated Abu Hurairah [radhi-yAll‚hu 'anhu]: All‚h's Messenger [sal-All‚hu 'alayhi wa sallam] said, "All‚h said, 'I will declare war against him who shows hostility to a pious worshipper of Mine. And the most beloved things with which My slave comes nearer to Me, is what I have enjoined upon him; and My slave keeps on coming closer to Me through performing Naw‚fil (praying or doing extra deeds besides what is obligatory) till I love him. Then I become his sense of hearing with which he hears, and his sense of sight with which he sees, and his hand with which he grips, and his leg with which he walks; and if he asks Me, I will give him, and if he asks My Protection (Refuge), I will protect him; (i.e. give him My Refuge), and I do not hesitate to do anything as I hesitate to take the soul of the believer, for he hates death, and I hate to disappoint him."' [Sahih Al-Bukh‚ri, 8/6502 (O.P.509)].